Today’s article comes from a guest contributor, Shawn McCarty of Venice, Florida. Shawn is an avid cyclist who has completed bike tours through various parts of the United States and Europe. His blog (aworldspinning.com) has some nice photos of his European adventure. And his custom electric cargo bike is amazing!
If you have biking facts, photos, or a story you think our readers would enjoy, let us know. We’re interested in presenting a variety of topics and points of view as we build our biking community.
If you have been following my blog about electric cargo bikes for a while, you know that I often make predictions about where the market for these bikes will go. Over time, many of my predictions have come to pass, but usually later or on a smaller scale than I had anticipated. For example, I wrote this almost a year ago:
I know what cargo biking will look like when it enters the mainstream, and I bet you do, too. We’ll see stores like Wal-Mart and Costco selling electric cargo bikes for about half the price of today’s models. They will be made in China, and probably designed there as well. When that day comes, I won’t know whether to cheer or cry…
That was one of my most audacious predictions, and one that I didn’t expect to happen any time soon. But let’s check where we are one year later. Available at Wal-Mart? Yes, but not electric cargo bikes, just electric bikes in their traditional form, priced between $400 and $800. Still, an electric bike for $400? That’s just unbelievable. Or maybe crazy – the bike has mixed reviews from customers on Amazon.
ODK Utility Bicycle
But as far as I can tell it’s not manufactured in China, and surely not designed there, so that part of my vision hasn’t arrived yet.
It has been 7 months since I posted my first article mentioning the Trek Transport+. After a very long fall and winter, the bike appears to be available to order. Trek has removed the “available late fall” qualification from their web site, and dealers in my area would be happy to take my order. With a price tag of $2809.99, it’s a little more expensive than the aggressive target of $2679 that was originally announced. It’s also $100 or $200 more than its competitors, the Yuba el Mundo and the Kona Electric Ute, but definitely worth considering for features like the BionX motor and integrated lighting (see my original article for further details).
However, my enthusiasm is tempered by the fact that I have never seen this bike, and it’s unlikely that I will in the near future. I’ve inquired at my local Trek dealers (there are quite a few in my area), and they don’t have any Transport+ bikes to show. They can’t tell me when or if they will see one.
Reviews of the Transport+ are rare on the web as well. The most complete review I found was from Bike Radar. The author loaded the bike and rode it for 6 weeks in a variety of conditions, so that review answered many of my questions.
If I were to review the bike myself, I would concentrate a little more on hill-climbing, braking, and range. I’d also check out the handling of the bike with loads that are carried a little farther to the rear than comparable bikes (including my own Rans Hammer Truck). But unless I can make special arrangements with Trek or a local dealer, that opportunity doesn’t look likely in the foreseeable future.
I’m both excited and frustrated with this state of affairs. For now, I’ll turn to my readers. If you have any experience with the Transport+, let us know what you think in the comments below.
For the past week, Seattle has been blessed with cold, sparkling clear weather. The crisp air makes the snow-capped mountains that surround us appear 50 miles closer. Did I mention we live in paradise?
It’s also extra-tempting to hop on the bike and enjoy a few moments in the sun as it slinks along the horizon. But be careful of the frost on the road! That’s a lesson my wife just learned the hard way.
On the first workday of the new year, she was riding her bike to the bus transfer station. As she approached a turn at the bottom of our hill, she stayed in the center of the road, well away from the frosty edges. Unfortunately, it wasn’t apparent that even the center of the street was polished with a microscopically-thin layer of black ice. Just enough to take down a bike, swift and hard, without a moment’s notice.
My wife landed on her hip, shoulder, and head, then slid for several yards before coming to a stop. We’re grateful to report that she sustained only minor bruises. That positive outcome can be attributed to three things. First, in the middle of the car lane, she was well away from the curb and other obstacles that might have complicated the fall. Second, the car behind her was following at a respectful distance, and she didn’t have to worry about it sliding over her. Finally, her bike helmet prevented a nasty bump to the head and kept the pavement from scraping her face.
To helmet or not?
This incident has caused me to reexamine my opinions about bike helmet use. Only a few weeks ago, I was taken to task by a reader for comments I had made regarding a helmetless rider on a video about electric bikes (here). The reader referred me to a site called cyclehelmets.org, which cites various research showing that mandatory helmet laws reduce bike riding by up to 30% without reducing bicycle-related head injuries. There are various charts like this one:
I won’t dwell on this, but the implication is that skyrocketing bike helmet use did not significantly reduce head injuries. And the rate of bicycle injuries is similar to that of pedestrians, who remain unhelmeted in Australia at this time.
I’m not an expert on this. My family and I have been serious about riding bikes for only three years, and besides my wife’s recent fall, we’ve experienced only one other. That was when I simulated a panic stop with a heavily loaded bike on wet pavement (you can read that bit of foolhardiness here if you’re curious). Our limited experience suggests that bike helmets do more good than harm, and we’ll keep them on.
But legally requiring others to wear helmets is a more complicated issue. Given the reduction in ridership that follows mandatory helmet laws, I’m not convinced that there is an overall increase in safety. Having more bikes in the streets increases the safety of individual riders through better visibility, infrastructure, and driver familiarity.
I realize that this is a contradiction relative to my opinions about mandatory seat belt laws. Those laws have led to documented reductions in highway deaths. That’s good for individuals and society. On the other hand, helmet laws may save a few individual bonks on the head, but may reduce benefits to society as a whole and bike riders in particular. Until there is a pretty strong case otherwise, I think our default stance should be individual responsibility.
The other lesson for my family is that we should stay off bikes when the temperature dips below 37 degrees Fahrenheit. I realize that people all over the world ride bikes in temperatures colder than that (we routinely did so in Copenhagen), but Seattle has some special considerations. Our hills, our minimal bike lanes, and the mixture of car and bike traffic are part of the difference.
But perhaps the biggest factor is salt.
When it snows in Copenhagen, the bike lanes are plowed even before the streets are (that always amazed us). And then the lanes are liberally seasoned with salt.
This has two results: we never slipped during our winter in Copenhagen (admittedly, the 2007-2008 winter was an unusually mild one there), and my bike displayed an appalling amount of rust after only one season. In Seattle, car dealers often make a big deal about used cars that are “local”. You don’t want some rusty hunk of junk from some other state that uses salt, they say.
But there’s a very good reason why Seattle doesn’t salt its streets and probably never will: salmon. Adding salt to the already oily brew that washes off our roadways could deliver a potentially lethal shock to young salmon. One might wonder if it’s appropriate to endanger human lives on slick roads for the welfare of fish.
Well, if you haven’t lived in the Pacific Northwest, it might be difficult to appreciate the importance of salmon. Fresh salmon are not just an important food (featured in almost every menu of local restaurants), they are integral to our economy, our culture, and our environment. Children study salmon in school, and we celebrate them with community festivals in the fall. The incredible migration upstream to spawn is a metaphor for dedication to a goal in the face of overwhelming obstacles. In the process, salmon deliver literally millions of tons of nutrients from the ocean to our rain forests, enabling a rich ecology that couldn’t exist otherwise.
You would think our love for salmon and a generally eco-conscious mindset among Seattle residents would spur us to develop alternatives to car-based transportation. But instead we have endless arguments and litigation. We disagree on the placement of light-rail lines, expansion and tolling of our bridges, replacement of the earthquake-damaged highway which is a blight on the city, and how to fund buses and ferries. There are squabbles between residents, transportation agencies, the legislature, and city councils.
I think of this as a testament to the tenacity of our car culture. It has taken over a century to develop our current transportation strategy, and it may take the better part of a century to unwind it. I’m hoping that in ten or twenty years, we will see a visible reduction in the steady stream of cars that crosses a bridge we see from our house.
Change at that pace is likely to be appreciated only by the truly patient.
An eventful year has passed since my first New Year status report. A lot has happened in my life and the cargo biking scene that would have strained my imagination last January. And a few things didn’t happen that I confidently anticipated. I would be thrilled to repeat last year’s progress in 2011, but I’ll try to avoid making any bold and probably inaccurate predictions and instead focus on recent events.
After a flurry of announcements in early fall, there has been little news from cargo bike manufacturers during the past couple of months. Perhaps they think that most Americans aren’t looking for new bikes when so many states are buried in snow. While that seems like a reasonable assumption, my blog has seen no seasonal decrease in interest. On the contrary, every month of 2010 saw significant increases in readership, with literally thousands of unique visitors in December alone. And that was despite the fact that I posted no new articles in December and only two short articles early in November!
But perhaps those statistics deserve closer scrutiny. For example, the top search keyword for my blog (at about 15%) was “fixie”, due to an article I wrote last September. In that post, I predicted that non-electric bikes would someday be viewed like the fixie bikes of today: idealogically pure, but not practical for the average commuter (at least if you live anywhere with moderate hills or wind or traffic intersections). Imagine the horror of someone looking for information on fixies and landing on a blog dedicated to electric cargo bikes – about as polar opposite as you can get in the biking world! And I’m probably skewing future results by mentioning fixies again in this article. Sigh…
On the bright side, 2010 saw the release of two electric cargo bikes (the Ute and elMundo) and the announcement of three more (the Transport+, several models from Onya cycles, and Urban Arrow). Waiting for availability of these latter bikes has required considerable patience. Despite my frequent criticism, Trek’s web site still claims the Transport+ will be available in late fall (they don’t mention which year!). Hey, Trek, is there anyone awake over there?
Some features and prices have evolved since my earlier reviews of the Ute, elMundo, and Transport+. All of these bikes now sell for about $2600, so they must now be evaluated on features (and availability) rather than price. I am pleased to see continued evolution of the elMundo, both in the bike’s features (like the rear disc brake) and the increasing accuracy of the specs published on their web site. For example, I complained in an earlier article that the power rating of their motor seemed inflated, and now it’s fixed. Thanks, Yuba!
I don’t have any news on the Urban Arrow, but I received some interesting feedback from Todd at Clever Cycles regarding my article about it:
Our wariness about the high-speed braking characteristics of bikes in this format [front loader] is why we never pushed the assist concept with them. It’s not just the brakes per se, but the lightly loaded front wheel without a big load, and the relatively small amount of rubber on the road relative to the total kinetic energy of the vehicle. The crashes didn’t happen from not being able to stop the wheels, but when the wheels did in fact stop and the tires lost purchase. Large footprint lower-pressure Big Apple tires, modest motor power with a sensible speed limit, relatively low vehicle mass: these are more reasons to be optimistic that Urban Arrow might be “the one.”
This is a point that I hadn’t considered before. In the past, I’ve worried about braking performance of loaded cargo bikes, and I found that increased load seems to also increase the braking performance of the tires (at least, on dry pavement). The performance of an unloaded tire is therefore of some concern, especially for people riding on steep hills. I’m optimistic that the Urban Arrow will be a good bike for relatively flat terrain; I will be quite interested to see how it performs in our neighborhood.
My Hammer Truck continues to work beautifully. But ironically, it’s not getting much use right now. I used to have a great biking circuit: I would bike with the kids to school, then bike to the Y for a workout, pick up groceries on the way home, and bike back to school to pick the kids up in the afternoon. However, my daughter now rides the bus to her new school, and my son likes to walk with his friends to school. My wife joined the Y, and now we drive there together at 5:00 in the morning. My son joined a gymnastics club which is a 30-minute commute by car, so I pick up groceries on the way home from taking him.
With these changes to our family schedule, I have to invent opportunities to ride the bike, and there isn’t much incentive to do that in the wet winter weather of the Pacific Northwest. When I do get the chance, it feels quite luxurious, and increases my nostalgia for the lifestyle we had in Copenhagen. Some days I spend 2 or 3 hours in the car – a nightmare! We bought a used Prius to increase our gas mileage while we await the arrival of our electric Leaf (perhaps as much as 5 months from now), but I’m discouraged that the layout of our city and the demands of our busy lives make it so difficult to pursue bike-centered transportation.
Kids on board
Speaking of transporting kids, I was recently introduced to a wonderful blog focused on carrying children on bikes: http://totcycle.com. The blog includes a great survey of the options, and it’s broader in scope than anything I’ve written on this subject because it includes non-electric alternatives. If you have young ones, check it out. The photos of kids napping on various bicycle configurations is heartwarming. I only wish I had started biking when my kids were younger.
I recently read an interview with an oil industry analyst who thinks we will see $5/gallon gas in the U.S. by 2012. He thinks this is possible not because of any near-term shortage of oil, but due to fear of shortages as the world’s economies recover.
If this turns out to be true, the timing isn’t great. Expensive fuel will either inhibit the long-awaited economic recovery, or it will spur inflation if our economy manages to power through it.
If there’s a bright side to this prediction, the price of gas is probably the most significant factor in determining how many bicyclists there are on U.S. streets. However, I would rather see people choose bikes for all their benefits rather than because they have a financial gun to their heads. But no matter how it happens, bicycles will play an increasing role in our transportation options. For solo riders with relatively short commutes, a bicycle just makes too much sense from the standpoint of energy expended per mile traveled. And because electric assistance extends the range and lowers the effort for a broader section of our community, it really is possible to see bikes in numbers we’ve never seen in modern America.
I said I wouldn’t make predictions, but if 2011 isn’t the year of the electric bike, no one will be more surprised than I.
About five months ago, I wrote an article called Dawn of the (U.S.) cargo bike revolution. At the time, the title seemed like a pretty big leap. I was extrapolating a new market and mode of transportation based on two barely-available cargo bikes with electric motor options.
If I was worried I was out on a limb last May, in retrospect I was just uncovering the tip of the iceberg. In the past few weeks, I’ve been overwhelmed by numerous electric cargo bike designs. I wish I could cover all of them in as much detail as my recent review of the Urban Arrow, but it takes a lot of time and energy to write reviews like that, and this is not a full-time job for me.
Onya Cycles is a San Francisco-based company with three different electric cargo bikes in the works. They are the brainchildren of inventor Saul Griffith, who won the MacArthur “Genius” award for a variety of projects he has initiated. Saul owned several cargo bikes and wanted to try his hand at correcting deficiencies he saw in each. His innovations range from the somewhat incremental to the fairly radical – definitely worth a mention here.
Onya’s bikes could fit under my “third generation” criteria (bikes designed with electric assistance as a central feature), but in contrast to the Urban Arrow, they will be available without the motor for people with flatter commutes or Lance Armstrong legs. The current BMC motor/battery option is the same for all three bikes and adds around $1300 to the price of each. The motor is rated at 600W (2000W peak) – these people have to face some of the steepest urban hills in the country, and they are serious about them! The battery provides 10 amp-hours at 48V – enough to provide assistance for about 20 miles. Onya bikes ride on 20″ wheels to increase torque and lower the center of gravity. They also have 160mm disc brakes on every wheel (did I mention these guys think about hills?)
Onya’s “Mule” cycle won’t surprise regular readers of my blog. Like most of the bikes I’ve reviewed during the past year, it’s a longtail. However, it is the first assisted longtail available prebuilt from a manufacturer that adheres to the Xtracycle standard, which opens the door for Xtracycle-compatible accessories (rather than locking into accessories provided by the bike’s manufacturer). There are arguments on both sides whether Xtracycle standardization is a good thing, but it makes a lot of sense for a smaller company like Onya to leverage the standard. The target price of around $3000 (powered) is high compared to the competition, but if you’ve got hills, the heavy-duty brakes and motor might justify the premium price.
The “E.T.” cargo bike is an interesting new shape (at least, new for the U.S.) for transporting lighter loads (less than 50 pounds) with a more compact bike. With a normal-length wheel base, this might fit on standard bike racks if the front bucket doesn’t get in the way. Target release for both the Mule and the E.T. is early in 2012.
Onya Front End Loader
I saved the most interesting for last. The “Front End Loader” is the first serious electric tricycle that I know of. Besides the hill-hungry motor and three disc brakes, the suspension is very interesting. It allows you to lean the bike during turns, reducing the risk of lifting a wheel (or worse). The company is quite proud of the custom computer code they had to write to model and optimize the tilting mechanism. You can meet the inventor and watch the bike climbing hills and tilting through turns in this video:
The Front End Loader is closer to release than the other two bikes. Onya has already sold 10 beta test Loaders for $4200 each. They realize that price is high, and hope to reduce it as they increase production volume.
The videos show the bike climbing significant hills with little or no pedaling. I watched that with a mixture of excitement, dread, and even a bit of skepticism. I’m excited because this was almost exactly my wish when I daydreamed about a perfect bike for my friends and neighbors last May. I asserted that people of all ages and abilities needed to be able to ride up a hill at a decent pace in order to make cargo bikes practical for a broad audience. Maybe that day is close at hand. A tricycle addresses concerns about balance at low speeds. However, I’m concerned that first-time bikers may hop on bikes with this kind of power and exceed their skill levels. A few unfortunate accidents could give the nascent market a black eye, and it might even produce legislation that could curtail the use of these bikes. I’ll have more to say on that later.
Finally, I’m a little skeptical because riding a bike up a hill at the claimed speed requires enormous amounts of power. I have questions about the battery’s ability to sustain that, and the motor’s ability to handle the heat that is generated. I’m hoping these are issues that a MacArthur genius can solve.
Regardless of how these bikes turn out, Onya Cycles is interesting in another respect. Like Urban Arrow, this is a company whose sole products are cargo bikes (and primarily electric). These companies represent a bold bet that the electric cargo biking market is here to stay. Unlike Trek and Kona, they don’t have traditional bikes to fall back on if interest in cargo biking stumbles.
I am further encouraged that these companies are not making a bunch of “me too” products. At this point, each of the bikes I’ve mentioned in this blog might address a fairly small niche. But taken together, they cover a pretty broad range of riders and uses. We’re not growing a mono-culture crop here. Just as biodiversity indicates a healthy ecosystem, a variety of cargo biking designs bodes well for the health of this kind of transportation.
Once again, I’m looking at developments I didn’t expect to see so soon. However, I know what cargo biking will look like when it enters the mainstream, and I bet you do, too. We’ll see stores like Wal-mart and Costco selling electric cargo bikes for about half the price of today’s models. They will be made in China, and probably designed there as well. When that day comes, I won’t know whether to cheer or cry…
Advanced Vehicle Design
Speaking of different designs, a German company (formerly British) named Advanced Vehicle Design produces quadricycles for business with a couple of motor choices. Another first: electric-assisted recumbents! While these might be expensive for individuals, they provide an impressive way for businesses to burnish their eco-friendly credentials. And they look cool:
But where can you drive them? I’ve been trying to figure out how they fit into the vehicle code of my state. There are regulations pertaining to medium-speed electric vehicles (speed limited to 45 mph), and there are rules for electric bicycles. But I’m left scratching my head: where could I legally drive a quadricycle? In the bike lane? Probably won’t fit. On the road with car traffic? That would be an annoying obstacle for drivers on some of our faster roads, even with electric assistance. Perhaps these vehicles are really only useful in big cities, although there are plenty of opportunities there.
After our year of living in Copenhagen, it’s easy to see how far the physical infrastructure in most American cities needs to evolve to support lower-speed and lower-energy transportation choices. The legal infrastructure pertaining to electric bikes also needs to evolve – that became increasingly clear as I perused the Washington State Vehicle Code. Different statutes from state to state and country to country impede progress. On the other hand, I fear that regulations developed in the absence of a real understanding of these vehicles will go overboard and unreasonably restrict them.
For example, I have a friend who does a good job of tracking biking trails on his blog and trail network website. He alerted me to a recent ruling that restricts use of electric bikes on a trail near Aspen, Colorado. The bewildering varieties and capabilities of different bikes and motors stumped officials until they made it easy: no electric assistance allowed, period. Although that regulation may be revisited, similar motions will be considered in many town councils and state legislatures. To maintain our freedom of mobility, we need to play a part in these discussions.
The situation that concerns me most is transport of children. That is a uniquely emotional issue that biking critics will use to restrict cargo bikes on the grounds of safety. If I weren’t allowed to transport my kids by bike, at least half my bike trips would be eliminated, and it would then be difficult to justify the cost of my “car replacement bike.” Cargo bikes will eventually reach a critical mass, and there will be a significant outcry if their use is unreasonably curtailed. But at this point, I feel the industry is vulnerable to restrictions that might appear as reasonable compromises to non-bikers.
To avoid any sort of legal backlash, I believe we need to help the public understand the benefits and the realities of cargo biking. Sometimes advocates of a greener life style get a little too enthusiastic and the public gets over-hyped impressions of cargo bikes. For example, in the following video, a helmetless rider carries two kids (at least they have helmets) on a bike that the motor propels at “up to 30 mph” (well over the federal legal limit). Can you blame people for becoming alarmed when they see that?
Although I may be alone in this, I also think cargo biking will receive long-term benefits if we are careful to follow traffic laws – even the ones that don’t seem to take electric cargo bikes into account (read BikeForth.org’s counterargument here). If we flaunt the laws we don’t like and annoy 99.9% of the people with whom we share the road, we will have few friends to defend us when laws begin to restrict what/where/how we ride. I realize this advice goes against a cargo biker’s natural inclinations towards non-conformity, but if I can help my community embrace a slower-speed, greener, more sociable lifestyle, living within the rules is a small price to pay.
I worked in the computer industry for three decades, so I am accustomed to the furious pace of innovation associated with that enterprise. Even so, I have been surprised by the pace of development of electric bikes in general. While competition in the electric cargo bike category has been a little less fierce, it’s amazing that we’ve witnessed three generations of development in a little over a year.
The first generation of electric cargo bikes were do-it-yourself jobs. Customers had to pick a bike and a motor, put them together, and hope the marriage would be a good one. That’s what I did with my Rans Hammer Truck and BionX motor, and as you probably know, I’m pleased with the result. But there are quirks and compromises that I have to warn people about when they take my bike for a test drive. There are issues (like a non-existant gear) that wouldn’t be tolerable on a bike that was manufactured with an integrated motor.
I’ve written extensively about the second generation of electric cargo bikes. These are cargo bikes that come with an optional motor from the manufacturer, like the Kona Electric Ute, Yuba elMundo, and Trek Transport+. Each of these bikes is available in assisted or non-assisted versions. The motorized versions reduce the guesswork and installation labor compared to the preceding generation.
I’ve frequently mused what a third-generation electric cargo bike would look like. What if a manufacturer, instead of adding a motor to a non-assisted bike, decided to start from scratch and design a bike that integrated electric assistance so fundamentally that it defined the essence of the bike?
Several days ago, I got my first answer to this question from a Dutch company named Urban Arrow.
Let me just say it: I’m very excited about this bike. Just in case my exuberance gets ahead of my experience, I’d like to be clear why I’m excited about it. It’s not just about what the bike is, but what it represents: a preview of where I expected electric cargo bikes to be in another couple of years. If the company manages to sell this bike next year at their current price target, the market is maturing faster than I imagined. Either that or they are a little ahead of where the market opportunity is today. It will be fascinating to find out.
I will caveat my remarks by acknowledging that I’ve never ridden this bike or seen it in person. Since Seattle is pretty far from Amsterdam, I don’t know when I’ll have that pleasure. However, the Urban Arrow won an Innovation Award last month at the Eurobike Show in Friedrichshafen, Germany. So at least I’m not alone in my appreciation.
Without further ado, here it is:
Yes, it’s a front loader – the first with integrated electric assistance that I’m aware of. As I’ve said before, front loaders are common in Europe, but they look pretty strange to North Americans who may have never seen one in person. Despite the unusual configuration, a front loader is really what you want if you’re transporting young children. With a lower center of gravity, their wiggles won’t disturb the equilibrium of the bike as much. In a worst-case scenario, they won’t have as far to fall. It’s also comforting to have them strapped in a sturdy box and under their parents’ watchful eye. Furthermore, when the weather turns wet, you can do this:
Urban Arrow with cargo cover
I can’t imagine a kid who wouldn’t be thrilled to ride in that cozy compartment. There really isn’t a comparable way to shelter your kids on a longtail bike. The cargo box features a bench seat (which hides the removable battery), 2.5″-thick high density foam for comfort and safety, a grocery net, and even cup holders! The box can be removed to convert into a flat-bed cargo bike, although I’m not sure how simple that is to do.
Groceries and passenger in the box
Most front loader bikes are heavy – between 70 and 100 pounds, and that’s without a motor or battery. The Urban Arrow uses an aluminum frame to keep the weight under 100 pounds including the motor and battery. That’s not exactly light compared to the longtails I’ve reviewed, but it’s prepared to handle some serious cargo. The company claims it can carry up to 400 pounds in addition to the rider. As usual, I wouldn’t want to test those limits, especially coming downhill.
Although the company doesn’t refer to the angled seat stem and forward pedals as a “crankforward” design, it’s closer to the posture of my Hammer Truck than the other bikes I’ve reviewed. I’ve described the advantages of this design in previous articles, but perhaps the main advantage is reduced step-down height. You can get your foot on the ground while seated without tipping the bike and your cargo too far.
Motor and transmission
Daum crank motor and chain
The Urban Arrow is assisted by a 250-watt motor manufactured by the German company Daum. In previous articles, I’ve faulted the Electric Ute for using a 250W motor, which I felt was inadequate for carrying cargo uphill. But even though the power rating is the same, there’s a critical difference between these bikes: the Ute has a hub motor, which typically produces less torque at lower hill-climbing speeds. The Arrow’s motor is connected to the crank, and it drives the wheel through the transmission – just like your legs. If the motor is beginning to fade at low speed, you can simply shift to a lower gear to increase cranking speed and get closer to the motor’s optimum torque range.
Stoke Monkey motor
This idea isn’t new. Cargo bikers have been using Stoke Monkey motors to drive their cranks for years. But the Stoke Monkey requires an extra chain to drive the crank, and another extra-long chain to drive the rear wheel of a longtail bike. If you’re the type that likes to lubricate and adjust chains in your spare time, a Stoke Monkey might work for you, but it’s not a solution that is likely to appeal to the mass market.
The Urban Arrow’s design avoids another pitfall of the Stoke Monkey: shifting under power. If you’ve opened up the throttle on your Stoke Monkey and then try to shift, you have at least 2 times the strength of your legs ready to grind through your derailleur and gears. The Arrow uses a Shimano Nexus 8 transmission to dispense with the gears and derailleur. Besides easier and more reliable shifting, the Shimano hub allows you to shift even when you are stopped or under load. That makes shifting one less thing to worry about.
Urban Arrow in urban setting
Eight gears seems adequate with motor assistance. I have 21 gears on my bike, but I only use the top 3 or 4 of them when the motor is helping. However, if you want to carry cargo over hills beyond the bike’s battery range, eight gears might not be enough. The company claims an assisted range of over 30 miles, but I suspect those are relatively flat miles in Holland, not Seattle hills. Battery capacity is 36V at 9.5 amp-hours.
Like almost all the electric cargo bikes I’ve reviewed in previous blog posts (with the exception of the Yuba elMundo), motor effort is controlled through a torque sensor which measures how hard you are pressing on the pedals, and then kicks in a proportional amount of assistance. I prefer this method to a manual throttle. Twisting both a throttle and a gear shifter is more than I care to think about when I’m negotiating traffic and road hazards.
To comply with European law, the motor is only allowed to assist up to 15 mph. In my opinion, that is a bit conservative, but probably wise. Especially when people are carrying kids, we shouldn’t encourage them to exceed that speed.
The drive chain of the Urban Arrow is nicely enclosed to keep it away from clothing and small fingers. It’s a great feature enabled by the internal hub transmission. I would still like to ride a chain-less bike someday, but this is a nice step in the right direction.
Assistance level and a wealth of other information is displayed on the large Daum control panel. Apparently, it will even measure your heart rate if you’re riding for fitness. A premium version includes GPS (for a premium price). That could be useful for rental bikes, letting the rider know where they are, and helping the rental company to keep track of their bikes. If a bike is stolen, the GPS unit can tell you where it is via SMS messages.
Shimano roller brake
When I saw the first photos of the Urban Arrow, I was excited to see disc brakes on the front and rear wheels. A company representative soon corrected my false impression: the disc-like features on the axles are actually cooling fins for Shimano roller brakes. The company deliberately chose roller brakes rather than disc brakes to reduce the possibility of skidding. Having experienced the dangers of skidding with a heavy load, that sounds good to me. On the other hand, will these brakes handle the long, steep incline that heats my disc rotors to the point of scorching? I don’t think Holland has hills like that, so the performance of these brakes on steeper terrain is still a concern for me.
When you look closely at the front wheel, you see something next to the roller brake fin. At first I thought it was a hub motor: it’s nearly the same size as the Ute’s motor. But it’s actually a hub dynamo. It produces electricity as it spins. At first that seemed odd to me – you’re spending electricity on the back wheel to produce electricity on the front wheel. Fortunately, my contact at the company cleared up the mystery. They need the hub dynamo to determine how fast the bike is going so they can keep electric assistance within legal limits.
Excess electricity from the dynamo will be used to power the Arrow’s front and rear running lights. For increased safety, I’d be willing to accept a little drag on the front wheel even during daylight hours. I’m not sure what happens at night before you achieve sufficient speed to fully power the lights. I would be tempted to put Down Low Glow light tubes on either side of the cargo box to enhance visibility from the side in the evening.
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The video below shows the Urban Arrow carrying kids. It’s in Dutch with English subtitles.
The next video is a review of the bike by a Dutch technology reporter. Unfortunately, it’s all in Dutch with no translation. I included it here because it contains two interesting clips. In the first, the rider performs a U-turn with the bike. That’s one drawback of the front-loader design; the rod that turns the front wheel prevents sharp turns, so a short-radius U-turn requires some back-and-forth. The second clip compares hill climbing with and without motor assistance (he thinks that is a hill?!? :-)) I couldn’t hear any difference between the two, raising my hopes that the motor is as quiet as the company claims.
Price and availability
The company is aiming to start selling the bike in the U.S. in the second quarter of 2011 for around $3700. That’s at least $1000 more than the motorized longtails I’ve been reviewing, so that alone might narrow the market for this bike. On the other hand, it’s in the ballpark of similar front-loaders without a motor (like this Bullitt from Splendid Cycles). If you’re looking for a kid carrier, the Urban Arrow would be a good deal at that price. The rain cover will add about $250.
Price is just one factor that will determine the success of the Urban Arrow in the U.S. I’ve already wondered how this bike will perform on steeper hills, but there are plenty of places in the U.S. where the landscape is more forgiving.
I think the bigger question will be dealer support. If I were going to invest thousands of dollars in a bike like this, I would want a reliable and knowledgeable bike shop nearby who could maintain and repair the bike, when necessary. I’m guessing that few bike shops in this country would be familiar with Daum motors, and although Shimano is a well-known name, experience with roller brakes may also be sparse.
I’m hoping that some American bike shops will start selling the Urban Arrow and specializing in its upkeep. A really savvy shop could alleviate customer concerns by offering free pickup of a disabled bike. Even if the bike is your “second car”, getting its 8-foot length into or onto your first car could be a challenge. By way of comparison, loading my 7-foot Hammer Truck into our mini-van is pretty tight, even with the back seats removed.
It’s ironic that a bike I’ve never seen has inspired me to write a longer review than one I’ve actually seen and ridden (like the Electric Ute). I’ve never felt comfortable writing about a bike that I’ve only met in cyberspace, but I’ve done it before when I felt it gave a better idea of the range of options and where the market is headed. That reasoning justifies this article because the Urban Arrow breaks new ground in several ways. It’s a harbinger of a new generation of bikes, and I’m excited about that possibility. I hope other third-generation bikes are around the corner rather than years away. If I get a clue, I’ll be happy to let you know.
The Urban Arrow is enough of a leap forward, I can’t stop myself from wondering what a fourth-generation bike would be like. In my opinion, the next major advance will be some sort of automatic transmission. As I’ve mentioned in a previous article, truly practical human-assisted transport will isolate rider effort from the terrain. Someday, a rider will pedal at a steady, comfortable pace, regardless of whether they are going uphill or down, and biking infrastructure in our cities will become more accomodating as riders of all ages and fitness levels discover they can participate in this revolution.
If nothing else, the Urban Arrow gives me hope that this vision is still achievable and on track.
This month marks the one-year anniversary of my cargo bike and my blog. What an interesting year it has been! I realize I’ve already made that point in several recent blog posts, so I won’t repeat myself here. But I will take just a moment to marvel at the timing of this: shortly after I returned to Seattle following a year of positive biking experiences in Copenhagen, and after deciding the only way to approximate that lifestyle here is with a little electric assistance, multiple manufacturers decided to offer motors on their cargo bikes. The timing couldn’t have been better to enable me to contribute something to this movement.
The title of today’s post (“Looking back, cranking forward”) reflects my desire to reflect on this past year. But it also describes the maneuver I perform on my bike when I want to change lanes or direction, and that’s a pretty good metaphor for my intentions regarding this blogging project. When I started, my main goal was to demonstrate the possibilities of this type of transportation. As more bikes came on the market, I started comparing their features. Then I wrote a few cautionary articles about potential pitfalls and limitations, trying to balance the inevitable marketing hype with a small dose of reality.
Now I’m approaching a decision point. With bigger companies starting to pay attention to cargo bikes, the efforts of a part-time cargo biker may not matter so much. People with bigger megaphones and larger marketing budgets will shape perceptions of cargo biking. Professional staff employed by biking magazines will begin to review these bikes, and I can shift my focus to other things.
At least, this is my hope. If we aren’t on the verge of this scenario, cargo biking may remain a small niche of enthusiasts. I’ve enumerated some of the reasons this could happen: lack of infrastructure, safety concerns, practical issues with weather/clothing/hair, or maybe just the larger size and higher price of these bikes. Even the price of gas figures into the general popularity of biking. The crystal ball is still cloudy.
Nonetheless, there are some interesting developments. For example, check out this marketing video from Trek. It presents biking in a light that might not be familiar to modern Americans. An attractive young woman enjoys doing her errands (buying vegetables and gardening tools from her neighborhood co-op) on her cargo bike at a relaxed pace in a nice suburban setting.
If you don’t find anything unusual about that marketing approach, compare it with this video that presents biking from the more common fanatic/competitive/fitness-oriented perspective:
(Did you watch that? The soundtrack, visuals, and punch line are pretty good! :-)) Granted, this video is promoting a bicycle race, but that’s my point. Many Americans think of Lance Armstrong and Tour de France when they think of biking, not going to pick up their groceries. We’re gradually changing that perception, but it hasn’t happened overnight, and it probably won’t.
Hammer Truck reviews
I’ve been waiting to see more detailed reviews of electric cargo bikes by professional magazines or web sites. Until they materialize, I’ve tried to fill the void with my own mini-reviews, but I can’t afford to buy bikes just to try them, and no manufacturer has offered to loan me one to demo. I can’t say I’m surprised – if they wanted to loan a bike out for review, they would probably choose a professional reviewer with known technical and writing chops.
Although I’m still waiting for those electric cargo bike reviews, I was pleased to see the first detailed review of the Rans Hammer Truck (but no motor added) a few weeks ago on the BikeCommuters.com web site. It’s nice to see a cargo bike critiqued by someone who is knowledgeable about cargo bikes and bicycle components.
While I’m on the topic of the Hammer Truck, I found this article about how to haul heavy loads with it (by Rans founder Randy Schlitter). I thought it was noteworthy that he mentions the dangers of transporting heavy loads downhill – on a bike equipped with both front and rear disc brakes! Most manufacturers are content to provide a single disc brake. Randy mentions other possible points of failure with a degree of candor that I heartily applaud. I recommend reading the article even if you aren’t considering a Hammer Truck as a potential ride.
Cargo bike economy review
Midway through the year, I projected that I would ride my cargo bike approximately 1,000 miles by its first birthday. The actual number appears to be somewhat less: a bit shy of 700 miles. Two things happened that cut my daily mileage: summer (we traveled a lot and I used the mini-van to transport kids to various activities) and a new exercise schedule (my wife and I drive to the local YMCA at 5:00 in the morning instead of me biking over by myself).
However, even though we’re driving the mini-van more than I would like, we cut our annual gasoline bill in half compared to the year before we went to Denmark. That’s partly because we have one less car now and my wife commutes to work by bike and bus. On the other hand, this year we needed to drive our daughter to many far-flung locations for gymnastics practice and competitions. Although the cargo bike isn’t the only factor reducing our gas usage, it is an important part of the program.
Although I may have hinted about our goals in previous blog posts, I don’t see any harm in being explicit about it. During this past year, my family has taken numerous steps to reduce our energy consumption and carbon emissions. We simply think it is wise to live in better balance with our planet and the creatures which need it. A less impactful lifestyle will benefit our country, our environment, and our children.
Last May we installed solar panels on our roof. During the sunny summer months they have produced more than 3 megawatt-hours of electricity – twice what we normally use during that period (the extra electrons flowed into the grid and were shared with our neighbors). But now the sun is going south, the days are getting shorter, and the clouds are returning. Our electricity production will fall below our needs this month for sure.
Federal and local tax incentives make our solar project financially feasible at our northern latitude, but just barely. Even with production credits, it will take us approximately 15 years to recover the investment, unless electricity rates climb significantly during the coming decade. So we’re not doing it just for the money. In these few months, the solar panels have saved the equivalent of nearly 3 tons of carbon dioxide. That feels nice, but most of our electricity comes from hydro-electric and wind power, so the savings may be more theoretical than actual. In any case, we wanted to support these nascent solar technologies so that the companies can survive and improve until solar power is a no-brainer for people around the country.
The next step in our program is to eliminate mini-van usage completely for daily errands. We’re planning to lease a Nissan Leaf all-electric car for about $350/month. Since we spend about $200/month on gas, the real cost of the lease will be about $175-$200/month, but then there’s car insurance and maintenance costs. No matter how we rationalize it, cars are expensive to operate. In comparison, the total bill for maintenance, improvements, and electricity to power my bike was less than $200 for the entire year.
Back to the main topic of this blog. As I review the articles that I’ve posted this year, I’m pleasantly surprised with the quantity of information I’ve been able to convey. Hopefully the quality of my posts was commensurate with that effort. Although I can now see the light at the end of the tunnel, I don’t think the project will be complete until I get to ride the Transport+ bike from Trek, which I’m hoping will debut in my area next month.
After that, I’m not sure. Writing a quality blog is interesting, somewhat addictive, and time-consuming. I’m open to suggestions, if you think there are topics that aren’t being covered elsewhere.
There are many alternatives to haul cargo on bikes – a fact that was demonstrated daily on the streets of Copenhagen during the year we lived there. By far the most popular were Christiania bikes, which were used to haul various daily goods including kids and girlfriends. There were also quite a few bikes with extended front ends, which look a bit awkward but have the advantage of keeping your cargo in view.
With such a variety of hauling solutions, the one cargo bike I never saw in Denmark is the one I’ve focused on in this blog: the longtail bike. One might wonder why I haven’t broadened my scope a little.
The main reason is my readership. Although my blog is read in many countries, roughly 80% of my readers are in the United States and Canada. Since I’m most familiar with the transportation landscape in North America, I can offer suggestions and opinions that are appropriate here. My experiences in Denmark strengthen my conviction that transportation must be tailored to local circumstances.
There are three things that make a Christiania bike a better choice for Denmark than the U.S.: flat geography, advanced biking infrastructure, and higher expectations or education about bikes in general.
As I’ve often said, flat terrain is a huge advantage for Danish bikers. The Christiania bike is heavy and not very aerodynamic. I rode one once and it required some effort to push it through a stiff Danish headwind. I’m not sure I could pedal one up a Seattle hill, even without a load.
The bike infrastructure in Copenhagen enables a diverse ecosystem of bikes. For example, many bike lanes in Copenhagen are wide enough for one Christiania bike to pass another without impinging on car lanes. Contrast that with my own city, where some bike lanes aren’t wide enough to accommodate a single Christiania-sized bike.
Finally, these kinds of bikes are viable because Danes use their bikes differently than Americans do. They tend to ride relatively short distances at a relaxed pace. They are accustomed to seeing all kinds of citizens on bikes, including many senior citizens who are more comfortable on a tricycle than walking. Bikes of many shapes and sizes are optimized for diverse needs. Here’s a video that illustrates what I mean. Check out the guy carrying 4 kids, a kid’s bike, and a whole bunch of other stuff on his bike:
Bike trailers represent another cargo hauling strategy that I rarely saw in Denmark. I’m guessing that’s because the added length, the extra wheels, and the location of the cargo farther behind you make a trailer difficult to maneuver in cozy urban settings. But I’ve been getting occasional emails from readers wondering about towing a trailer with an electric bike, so perhaps it is time to tackle the subject.
Before I start, I should say that I have never used a trailer, and I’m in the precarious position of expressing opinions that aren’t based on actual experience. I’m hoping that my trailer-towing readers (I know there are some of you out there!) will let me know if I say anything stupid.
From a price standpoint, a trailer-based cargo bike has some advantages. If you already own a bike, you can buy a nice trailer for about $500. If you were to add an electric motor and lithium-manganese battery for less than $1000, your outlay would be at least $800 less than the least expensive electric longtail bike I’ve described in previous blog posts. So how do they compare on features?
The trailer gets points for flexibility. When you’re not carrying cargo, you can enjoy a nice electric bike that’s a little more nimble than a longtail. It will fit on the rack of a suitably-equipped bus – not something most longtails can do.
Refrigerator on a bike trailer
The trailer can also carry heavier or awkward loads due to its longer cargo deck and lower center of gravity. For example, here’s a story of a guy moving a refrigerator using a bike trailer. That’s not going to happen on a longtail!
However, if you’re thinking of using your cargo bike for more common daily chores (carrying kids and/or groceries, for example), a trailer will be overkill. It’s not going to be as easy to pack or to ride.
Everything I’ve said so far might be obvious, so the real question is how the electric motor is going to perform with a bike trailer. Since it’s going to provide a significant boost to your leg power, the motor will
Decrease your effort
Increase your speed
Increase the amount of weight you can haul
Increase the slope of hills you can climb
The last 3 items on that list arouse some safety concerns. Since the wheels of the bike trailer don’t have brakes, the momentum of your cargo will add stress to your bike’s brakes without adding weight to your wheels. This increases the chance of skidding. As I discovered here, a skidding front wheel radically diminishes steering control. That would be a bad situation on a normal bike, but the bike trailer adds another complication. Unless you’re stopping in a perfectly straight line, the trailer will impart a sideways force to your bike during hard braking. I’ve seen enough jack-knifed trucks to be sure I don’t want to see a jack-knifed cargo bike.
What does this have to do with the electric motor? Nothing, except that the extra power and speed provided by the motor will complicate emergency stops. A hard stop at 25 m.p.h. is qualitatively different from the same stop at 15 m.p.h. If my experience is any guide, it’s hard to resist the temptation to open up the throttle when there are no obstacles in sight. Unfortunately, it’s the obstacles you don’t see that lead to emergency braking situations.
My gut feeling (again without practical experience) is that bike trailers excel at transporting big loads at moderate speeds over relatively flat terrain. An electric motor would be helpful to get the load moving without shifting through all your gears. Your safety sense must be your guide in determining how fast you allow that motor to propel you.
I have one other concern. There’s a reason you don’t see a trailer hitch mounted on a Toyota Prius: the car’s drivetrain isn’t designed for it. Likewise, most bike motors weren’t designed to tow heavy trailers. Even if they work for awhile, the extra wear and tear may not be covered by the manufacturer’s warranty. Anyway, it’s something you might investigate before pursuing this course.
If you use a bike trailer, and especially if you’re using a motor, I’d love to hear about your experiences.
Today I was sitting in my mini-van, waiting in a pretty long line of cars for a left-turn signal to change. As I waited, I was excited to see an electric bicycle pass me. It wasn’t a cargo bike, but sightings of electric bikes are still rare enough to catch my eye. I watched as the cyclist moved to the front of the left turn line, and I was a little surprised. When I ride my bike to that same intersection, I take my place in the line just like any car would.
My surprise quickly turned to dismay. The rider slowed as he approached the intersection, looked both ways, and then made the turn while the light was still red!
I know that cyclists sometimes bend the rules a bit, and I can understand the temptation. Coming to a full stop at an intersection requires a lot of gear shifting and loss of precious momentum. Our leg muscles pay so much more for that momentum than cars do. But electric motors ameliorate that. I often execute a full stop/start without shifting at all, because my motor is powerful enough to get me going again in a high gear.
To paraphrase Spiderman (how long have I waited for this opportunity?) – “With great power comes great responsibility.” I honestly feel this when I’m riding my electric bike. I take extra care to obey traffic laws, because my life and well-being depends on others obeying those laws.
If the driver of a car flaunted the law so flagrantly, I would be tempted to whip out my iPhone and take a photo of his license plate. I don’t know what I would do next, but I feel like there might be some recourse. However, electric bikes exist in this gray area where you can travel almost as fast as a car on residential streets, but you don’t need a license. As a result, there is no recourse for someone who is annoyed with your behavior. They might be tempted to yell at you or crowd you with their car. That doesn’t sound like a recipe for peaceful coexistence on our streets.
Perhaps legal regulations will change as electric bikes become more popular. Not that I want additional barriers to electric bike adoption, but it may be inevitable. In the meantime, I want to demonstrate that electric bikers can be good citizens on our shared roadways, and that we deserve respect and consideration from drivers. As newcomers to streets that have been ruled by automobiles for decades, I think we have to earn it.